National Center for Access to Justice

New Models


In response to the justice gap, courts and communities across the United States are implementing new policy models intended to help expand access to justice.These models are important in light of the harms posed to individuals and families when proceeding without counsel in matters that may include, among others, eviction and foreclosure proceedings; domestic violence, divorce, child support and child custody proceedings; debt collection proceedings; and, criminal justice system proceedings.

The new models include new roles for judges and for court officials, new “self help centers”, new computer kiosks with automated forms, new “e-filing options”, and new roles for “non-lawyers” (including “navigators”, “court advocates”, “community based paralegals”, “limited licensed legal technicians”).  The new models also include “a civil right to counsel”, sometimes referred to as “civil Gideon.”


NCAJ is working on multiple fronts to support selected new models for access to justice:

  • The Justice Index – NCAJ has identified selected best models for access to justice in the Justice Index, The Justice Index is NCAJ’s data-intensive online resource that ranks states based on whether they have adopted best models for access to justice. Selection of models for inclusion in the Justice Index is based on NCAJ’s knowledge, the recommendations of leading institutions, the guidance of leading experts, and the early findings of a growing field of social science evaluative research focused on models for access to justice. Selected best models are posted in the Justice Index accompanied by citation information to facilitate their replication in new jurisdictions. To visit and use the Justice Index, click See also Justice Index on NCAJ’s web site.
  • Emerging Scholars – On July 23, 2018, the National Science Foundation (NSF)announced a new award to promote AtJ scholarship, naming Rebecca Sandefur (MacArthur Fellow) as principal investigator, and naming Alyx Mark & David Udell co-principal investigators.The focus of the effort will be on growing the field of AtJ scholarship and building an agenda for AtJ research by identifying scholars doing pertinent work in diverse fields, and by bringing the scholars together for a intensive workshop in June 2019. NSF explains:  “This project will consist of a census-style survey of academic disciplines engaged in access to justice scholarship and an intensive workshop. It is designed to build a research field and an evidence base by identifying emerging access to justice researchers, coordinating collaboration across academic disciplines, and producing a research agenda and original scholarship to give access to justice research the vigor and definition of a field.To learn more about the project, see the NSF’s announcement.
  • Engaged & Neutral Judging – NCAJ’s executive director is co-author of a manuscript that has been accepted for publication in 2019 arising out of an empirial research project fundedy by the National Science Foundation to examine the new model of “engaged and neutral judging” in the New York City Housing Court. Publication is anticipated in Journal of Forensic Psychology: Research and Practice under the title Perceptions of Access to Justice among Unrepresented Tenants: An Examination of Procedural Justice and Deservingness in New York City Housing Court. The other authors on the paper are social scientists Larry Heuer, Barnard College; Angela Jones, Texas State University; and Steve Penrod, John Jay College of Criminal Justice. To learn more about the project, see NSF’s official abstract.


      • On September 26, NCAJ Executive Director David Udell joined more than 80 people to testify in support of Intro 214-A, a bill introduced by City Council Members Mark Levine and Vanessa Gibson that would create a right to civil counsel for low-income New Yorkers facing eviction, ejectment, and foreclosure.

screen-shot-2016-09-28-at-9-19-26-amSee a full video of the testimonies and skip to 3:39:00 for the testimony by David Udell. Download written testimony here.